Everything You Need to Know About CBD
CBD is all the rage these days. Everyone seems to be talking about it, but what is CBD and what does it do?
What Is a Cannabinoid?
Perhaps you have heard CBD called a cannabinoid. The term cannabinoid refers to any compound that triggers your endocannabinoid system by activating its receptors. Cannabinoids are produced naturally in your body, but they can also come from other sources.
The cannabinoids that are naturally produced in your body are called endocannabinoids. Cannabinoids that come from plants are called phytocannabinoids. CBD is one example of a phytocannabinoid, though there are many. There are also synthetic cannabinoids.
How Do Cannabinoids Work?
A cannabinoid is anything that triggers your endocannabinoid system (ECS). So what exactly is the endocannabinoid system? The ECS plays an important role in regulating many functions within your body, including the inflammatory system, immune function, sleep, appetite, digestion, pain receptors, hormones, reproductive function, and memory. Your body makes endocannabinoids as needed to help with this regulation. These endocannabinoids activate your cannabinoid receptors—cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) 1 .
CB1 receptors are found mainly in the brain and throughout the central nervous system 2 . They are primarily associated with pleasure and reward pathways.
CB2 receptors are found mainly in the immune system 3 . They are found on the surface of white blood cells throughout the body, including muscles, skin, and vital organs. CB2 receptors are also linked to the regulation of the inflammatory system. CB2 receptors are not as widely distributed throughout the body as CB1 receptors 4 .
Have you ever felt the famed “runner’s high”? You can thank your endocannabinoid system for that. After a period of strenuous exercise, the body begins to produce an endocannabinoid called anandamide. Anandamide activates both CB1 and CB2 receptors. When the anandamide activates the CB1 receptors, it produces an almost euphoric feeling while the activation of the CB2 receptors soothes discomfort in the muscles and joints.
THC & CBD
Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of “more than eighty biologically active chemical compounds” found in cannabis 5 . THC is a psychoactive cannabinoid and causes psychoactive effects or a “high.” THC activates both CB1 and CB2 receptors.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is another compound found in cannabis. CBD does not have the same psychoactive properties as THC. CBD directly interacts with CB1 and CB2 receptors, but the interaction is so weak it is inconsequential 6 . CBD does still affect your endocannabinoid system, but it actually affects it indirectly and by a different mechanism than most cannabinoids.
CBD acts on an enzyme called fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). FAAH breaks down the before mentioned anandamide. CBD slows down FAAH’s activity, which leads to increased levels of anandamide in the body 7 . Anandamide is an endocannabinoid the body makes which affects both CB1 and CB2 receptors, resulting in increased feelings of euphoria (CB1) and soothing of inflammation in tissues (CB2).
Is CBD Safe and Effective?
It seems that CBD has flooded the marketplace and can be found in every product imaginable, from mascara to doggy treats. Amidst this excitement, however, there are a few reasons you should remain cautious.
The FDA acknowledges, “[S]ome companies are marketing products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds in ways that violate the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) and that may put the health and safety of consumers at risk.” 8
There is relatively little medical and scientific research regarding CBD. This is due in large part to legal and research limitations. Some studies indicate promising benefits, but the research is young, and it is still too early to come to any definitive conclusions about the perceived health benefits of CBD.
Is CBD Legal?
A lot goes into determining whether a substance is legal. It is important to start with some background.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for reviewing and approving applications to ensure that new drugs meet the standards of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is responsible for enforcing the Controlled Substances Act. They also regulate “the handling of all controlled substances, including those being used by researchers to conduct studies.” 9
“The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) places all substances . . . regulated under existing federal law into one of five schedules. This placement is based upon the substance’s medical use, potential for abuse, and safety or dependence liability.” 10
“[Marijuana] is listed in Schedule I of the CSA due to its high potential for abuse, which is attributable in large part to the psychoactive effects of THC, and the absence of a currently accepted medical use of the plant in the United States.” 11 (Exceptions 12 )
However, the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 made some cannabis no longer subject to the Controlled Substances Act by defining hemp as “Cannabis . . . with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] concentration of not more than 0.3 percent.” 13 This means hemp can be grown in states whose laws allow the industrial production and sale of hemp. This is contributing to the purported presence of CBD in various products, including alleged CBD oil. Any plant containing an excess of 0.3 percent THC is considered marijuana and is therefore a Schedule I controlled substance under the CSA and thus subject to the DEA. Even if something is considered hemp (according to the 2018 Act) by containing less than 0.3 percent THC, it is still subject to all other relevant federal laws. 14
The 2018 Act did not remove the FDA’s “authority to regulate products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds under the FD&C Act and . . . the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act).” 15 This means that any product containing cannabis or cannabis compounds, such as CBD, is still subject to the same laws as any other drug or dietary supplement. This includes CBD oil. Any product containing CBD, regardless of its THC content, cannot currently be sold as a dietary supplement. 16 This is because the FDA has approved neither THC nor CBD under the FD&C Act. 17
Drug Approval Process of Schedule I Substances
- Conducting clinical research for the drug approval process of Schedule I substances requires at least the following:
- Filing a registration application with the DEA
- Initial review of the application and research procedures by the FDA
- Working with the FDA to submit an application to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)
- Obtaining the controlled substance (in this case, cannabis) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
- Conducting clinical trials
- Continued review of research procedures and security measures by the FDA
- Compiling scientific data and submitting it to the FDA for approval of controlled substance
Companies that are selling products said to contain CBD are bypassing this process. Their products are not meeting FDA standards because the FDA has not set any. The FDA reviews “applications to market drugs to determine whether proposed drug products are safe and effective for their intended indications.” 19 Without FDA oversight, “the purity and potency of the drug may vary considerably.” 20
According to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses conducted by doTERRA’s analytical chemists, THC is found in high concentrations in many brands of cannabis oil. THC is found in both hemp and CBD oil in more than just trace amounts.
Without FDA oversight of CBD, it is difficult to be certain of both the amount and purity of CBD a product may contain. Regardless of what a product may claim, it may contain no CBD at all, while others may vary in purity or consistency of formula. “Over the past several years, FDA has issued several warning letters to firms that market unapproved new drugs that allegedly contain cannabidiol (CBD). As part of these actions, FDA has tested the chemical content of cannabinoid compounds in some of the products, and many were found to not contain the levels of CBD they claimed to contain.” 21
In the case of “CBD oils,” the CBD is combined with a carrier oil. This is because CBD is merely an isolate and not an oil by itself. Depending on what CBD is extracted from and depending on its quality, CBD is heavily diluted using varying amounts of a carrier oil.
A doTERRA chemist has stated, “[O]ur own internal investigation involving analytical testing and evaluation has found that various CBD oils on the market do contain significant levels of THC and therefore could very likely trigger a psychoactive response and/or positive drug test. Our evaluation has also shown that commonly purchased brands of CBD oil can vary greatly in their claimed CBD content.” 22
Why Isn’t doTERRA Producing a CBD Oil?
Due to issues of legality, as well as limited research and other concerns, doTERRA is not making any CBD products or oils at this time. We are committed to our standard of CPTG Certified Pure Tested Grade™ oils and nothing less. Right now, it is not possible to deliver a CBD oil that meets our CPTG ® standards.
Are There Alternatives?
While CBD may not be a good option at this point, there are other ways to boost the health of your endocannabinoid system.
Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a sesquiterpene found in hundreds of different plant species. It is also known as a cannabinoid because it interacts directly with CB2 receptors around the body, soothing tissues and helping to manage healthy inflammatory responses. 23 Remember that any compound (group of molecules) that acts on either or both of the cannabinoid receptors is a cannabinoid. BCP does not affect CB1 receptors and there is no risk of psychoactive effects. 24
Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) in Copaiba
BCP is the main chemical constituent in Copaiba essential oil, which comes from distilling the oleoresin of the copaiba tree. A GC/MS analysis confirmed that doTERRA Copaiba essential oil has approximately 55 percent BCP content—the highest BCP content of any known oil.
There is substantial evidence supporting the powerful benefits of oral supplementation of beta-caryophyllene. Further human clinical trials are needed, but current studies are already quite promising—as little as 1–2 drops of Copaiba oil produce noticeable results in humans.
All doTERRA essential oils, including Copaiba, are CPTG Certified Pure Tested Grade. This means that the oil is pure: there are no added fillers, synthetic ingredients, or harmful contaminants that would reduce its efficacy. Each batch of oil undergoes rigorous internal and third party testing to confirm that oils are meeting our quality standards. Every bottle of oil has a unique Quality ID that you can use to view the GC/MS test results from an independent, verified third party lab on Source to You.
Because doTERRA Copaiba essential oil has approximately 55 percent BCP content, the amount of oil needed to produce noticeable results is incredibly small—only a couple of drops. doTERRA Copaiba oil is actually a blend of oils that come from four species of the copaifera tree: Copaifera reticulata, Copaifera officinalis, Copaifera coriacea, and Copaifera langsdorffii. This blend of multiple copaifera species contributes to a more potent and effective version of the essential oil.
Because Copaiba is so pure and potent—needing only a drop or two for the BCP to start affecting the human body—its price point as a potential natural solution is affordable. This becomes especially true considering the cost of most CBD products and oils on the market—products and oils that aren’t substantiating the actual amount and purity of CBD you are receiving in their product.
We know that BCP activates CB2 receptors directly. This means that you can have confidence and assurance in BCP’s ability to interact with the endocannabinoid system. Additionally, knowing exactly how BCP triggers the endocannabinoid system (by directly activating CB2 receptors), we are able to collect more reliable information about dosage and effects than we can at this point with CBD.
CBD is all the rage these days. Everyone seems to be talking about it, but what exactly is CBD and what does it do?
Copaiba vs. CBD: What’s the Difference?
Using natural plant products in traditional health has been a practice for centuries. Mother Nature has provided some of the most diverse, complex compounds still used today to promote wellness and address a variety of concerns. When presented with so many essential oil options, you might pose the common question: What’s the difference? How do you compare Lemon and Lime? Lavender and Clary Sage? Cassia and Cinnamon Bark? Or, in this case, CBD and Copaiba?
The Endocannabinoid System
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a hot term in complementary and alternative medicine, and for good reason. It plays a fundamental role in managing many modern and prevalent concerns, including mood, inflammation, appetite, and relaxation. This biological system, composed of receptors, cannabinoids, and enzymes, is found throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and acts as a regulator for countless physiological processes. What that means is the ECS helps maintain internal balance in a world that is constantly changing.
CB1 and CB2 Receptors
Within the ECS, there are two primary receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). The brain and spinal cord contain CB1 receptors, whereas CB2 receptors are predominately found in our immune system. Due to residing in different parts of the body, activation of these receptors can have very different effects. For instance CB2 activation supports healthy nervous and immune system function, while activating its counterpart (CB1) receptors can modulate mood, memory, or even perception of pain. While binding to the CB1 receptors positively influences many brain functions, research has shown that it may also have some unwanted psychoactive effects 1 .
There are three groups of molecules that can greatly affect the function of the ECS: endocannabinoids (produced by the body), phytocannabinoids (produced by plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (produced in a lab). Phytocannabinoids are different because they are produced naturally by plants, such as Cannabis, Black Truffle, and Cacao, and found within essential oils such as Copaiba, Black Pepper, and Melissa.
Literature suggests that these ECS-influencing substances tend to be selective in the receptors they activate 2 . This means they tend to activate either the CB1 or CB2 receptors, and they do so directly or indirectly depending on their chemical makeup. Furthermore, the stronger or more directly the molecule adheres to its receptor, the quicker it will produce a physiological effect. This is precisely why Copaiba is such a valued essential oil, it is high in a phytocannabinoid called beta-caryophyllene (BCP). Beta-caryophyllene has the ability to bind directly to CB2 receptors to affect the ECS.
The Advantages of Copaiba
At the 2019 Together Convention, doTERRA’s Director of Education and Training, Scott Johnson, said, “Copaiba and CBD work within the same biological system, so people naturally want to compare them, but it’s not really a fair comparison[…]Copaiba has benefits that can’t be achieved with CBD.”
Because BCP directly binds to CB2 receptors, it produces rapid and powerful changes within the body. On the other hand, CBD doesn’t effectively bind to either receptor so it indirectly affects the ECS. In fact, despite having the unique ability to bind (indirectly) to both CB1 and CB2, CBD’s interaction is not nearly as intense as that offered by other compounds.
Exemplifying doTERRA’s commitment to Pursue What’s Pure, Copaiba is a product born from that standard. Unlike CBD, essential oils rich in BCP, such as Copaiba, are easily tolerated compounds that offer countless benefits to the human body. At this year’s convention, Scott highlighted other possible targets and pathways for BCP outside the ECS such as the CD14 receptor, the μ-Opioid receptor, and the α7-nACHRs receptor.* These receptors affect pathways associated with healthy inflammatory response 3 , overall body comfort, and cognitive function.
The Limitations of CBD
Because CBD does not bind directly to receptors, you can expect slower cellular responses. Scott Johnson said it best at convention describing CBD as a “helper molecule that signals the ECS to work more efficiently and modulate our responses to the molecules that do directly bind to our receptors.” Furthermore, as doTERRA’s in-house GCMS testing has shown, CBD—which is an isolate extracted from the cannabis plant—is often mixed with carrier oils, so absorption is limited and the effect is further decreased. In fact, a recent review of clinical data on CBD revealed internal usage may come with potential unwanted risks 4 .
In addition, according to a study published in 2017, 69% of CBD products were mislabeled and found to have higher levels of THC than are currently permitted by regulations 5 . This poses regulatory challenges and also increased risk for unwanted side effects. Not only can formulations of CBD contain some amount of THC 6 , but as previously mentioned, CBD is not an essential oil, it’s an isolate extracted from the cannabis plant. For doTERRA, the fact that it is nearly impossible for CBD to meet CPTG Certified Pure Tested Grade™ standards for purity and potency is reason enough to keep it out of the product line.
With its fast and direct bonding to CB2, beta-caryophyllene is a powerful constituent with potential to support well-being in a variety of ways. Try taking Copaiba orally to support a healthy inflammatory response 7 , apply topically to help reduce blemishes, or use aromatically to create a calm and relaxing environment.* As Scott Johnson says, “When used daily, Copaiba helps you live a longer and healthier life with greater periods of homeostasis.”
* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
BCP directly binds to CB2 receptors to produce rapid and powerful changes within the body.