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Common bile duct

The common bile duct (CBD), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct, is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD).

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Terminology

On ultrasound imaging, it is not always possible to confidently see where the cystic duct enters the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. Therefore it is common practice to use the term common duct (CD) as a term conflating the common hepatic and common bile ducts.

Gross anatomy

The CBD is approximately 8 cm long and usually 2 :

    partially covered posteriorly (most common:

50%)

  • completely covered
  • completely uncovered
  • CBD may pass laterally to the pancreatic head (least common)
  • The common bile duct (CBD), which is sometimes simply known as the bile duct, is formed by the union of the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CHD). Terminology On ultrasound imaging, it is not always possible to confidently see where the cy…

    Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    Nidhi Lal

    1 Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine & Sagore Dutta Hospital, Kolkata, India.

    Simmi Mehra

    2 Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India.

    Vivek Lal

    3 Regional Medical Advisor (East), GLRA-India.

    Abstract

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races.

    Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry.

    Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India.

    Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures.

    Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation.

    Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did not show any statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric measurements.

    Conclusion: Our study reported the upper limit of normality as 7.9 mm. The diameter increased progressively from 3.9 mm among those aged 18-25 years to 4.7 mm among those in the age group more than 55 years. This was found to be statistically significant. Ductal diameters beyond these limits should prompt the need for further investigations.

    Introduction

    The size of the common bile duct is a predictor of biliary obstruction and it’s measurement is therefore an important component in the evaluation of the biliary system. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct would help to distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice.

    Ultrasonography is an accurate, safe, non-invasive and inexpensive imaging modality, which is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of many biliary tree diseases [1]. Ultrasonography is comparable in accuracy to oral cholecystography, radionuclide studies, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and more cost-effective [2].

    With the development of high resolution scanners, the luminal diameters of the common bile duct can be assessed accurately. The normal internal diameter of the common bile duct on ultrasonography is 6 mm [3]. Different opinions regarding the size of the common bile duct have been revealed in literature.

    It is an established fact that variations exist in the anthropometric features of various populations, races and regions [4]. Studies have suggested correlation between different kinds of body builds and diseases. However, despite technological advancements, the association of anthropometric measurements with the diameters of common bile duct has remained controversial.

    We conducted this study to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct among Rajasthani population in order to determine the range of normal diameters for common bile duct among this population and to determine its association with age, sex, physical measurements like height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at the transpyloric plane, circumference at the umbilicus and circumference at the hip.

    Materials and Methods

    We conducted a cross-sectional hospital-based study at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur. A total of 200 subjects, comprising an equal proportion of males and females were included in the study. The study included normal healthy adult male and non-pregnant female subjects visiting hospital OPD for regular check-up without any history of or known hepatobiliary disease, cardiac disorders, splenomegaly and portal hypertension. An informed consent was obtained from all the subjects prior to enrolment in the study.

    Socio-demographic details related to age, sex and place of residence were recorded for each subject. The ultrasonographic findings with regard to common bile duct diameter were obtained. In order to reduce observer bias, the same expert radiologist was involved in conducting ultrasonography for all subjects. A 3.5 megahertz (MHz) transducer was used. The common bile duct was identified through its association with the portal vein in the long axis of the gallbladder. At this location the common bile duct and hepatic artery appear as two smaller circles anterior to the portal vein, giving an appearance of a face with two ears – also called a ‘Mickey Mouse’ sign. With the indicator directed toward the patient’s right, the right ear is the common bile duct and the left ear, the hepatic artery.

    A single measurement of the bile duct can be misleading as the duct may be normal at this point, yet be distended lower down in early obstructive jaundice. Thus, the common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points [ Table/Fig-1 ].

    Ultrasonographic measurement of CBD at three locations

    All the physical measurements were conducted in a separate area, screened off to provide privacy. The following procedures were adopted for conducting anthropometric measurements [5]: Subjects were asked to stand with their feet together with weight evenly distributed over both feet and with their arms relaxed at the sides during the measurements.

    Height was measured using a stadiometer with a sensitivity of 0.1 centimeter. The weighing scale with a sensitivity of 0.1 kg was used to measure weight. Chest circumference was measured using a measuring tape over light clothing and while breathing normally. In the males, the measurement was made at the widest point of the chest; in the females, the measurement was made at the level of the nipples with the measuring tape held horizontally. The circumference at the transpyloric plane was measured at a level midway between the suprasternal notch (at the upper border of manubrium between the sternal heads of sternomastoid muscles) and the symphysis pubis (at the lower end of median line). Circumference at the umbilicus was obtained by measuring the abdominal circumference using measuring tape at the level of the umbilicus. Circumference at the hip was measured with the measuring tape positioned around the maximum circumference of the buttocks.

    Results

    We studied a total of 200 subjects; wherein an equal proportion belonged to either sex. The study subjects belonged to the age group 18-85 years of age; the mean age was 34.5 years (SD 13.24 years). A majority of the participants belonged to the age group 18-25 years. The mean age for males was 35.8 years while that for females was 33.1 years. This difference in ages was not statistically significant.

    The mean weight and height of the participants was 51.4 kg (SD 12.25 kg) and 163.4 cm (SD 9.98 cm) respectively. The mean circumference measured at levels of chest, transpyloric plane, umbilicus and hip were 83.5 cm (SD 9.04 cm), 75.2 cm (SD 9.94 cm), 78.1 cm (SD 12.02 cm) and 87.2 cm (SD 10.0 cm) respectively.

    [Table/Fig-2]:

    Mean and standard deviation of common bile duct diameter by age group

    Age Group (in completed years) Number of Participants Mean (mm) Standard Deviation (mm)
    18-25 70 3.9 0.86
    26-35 50 4.0 0.91
    36-45 46 4.1 1.17
    46-55 23 4.4 1.23
    >55 11 4.7 0.81
    Total 200 4.1 1.01

    In order to compare the diameter across the five age groups, and test the null hypothesis that the groups have the same common bile duct diameters, we applied the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The difference was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.05).

    Further, we applied a test for linear trend on the age-wise distribution of common bile duct diameter. This was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.003), with an F-statistic of 8.78.

    The mean diameter of common bile duct was observed to be 4.1 mm (SD 0.95 mm) for males and 4.0 mm (SD 1.07 mm) for females. This difference was tested by applying independent samples t -test. The t value was 0.86, which was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.38).

    In order to assess the association between common bile duct diameter and anthropometric measurements, both of which were continuous variables, correlation was used.

    Common bile duct diameter was not observed to have statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric measurements. The diameter was not observed to have statistically significant correlation with any of the anthropometric measurements among either sex [ Table/Fig-3 ].

    [Table/Fig-3]:

    Summary of correlation between common bile duct diameter and anthropometric measurements by sex

    Anthropometric Measurement Male Female
    Correlation Coefficient Sig. (p-value) Correlation Coefficient Sig. (p-value)
    Weight – 0.01 0.851 0.13 0.177
    Height – 0.02 0.782 0.01 0.863
    Chest circumference 0.03 0.712 0.09 0.328
    Circumference at transpyloric plane 0.04 0.684 0.18 0.071
    Circumference at umbilicus 0.08 0.421 0.09 0.340
    Circumference at hip – 0.03 0.771 0.07 0.432

    Discussion

    This study was conducted among 200 normal subjects belonging to the state of Rajasthan. An equal number of males and females in the age group 18-85 years of age were included in the study. The subjects underwent ultrasonographic measurements of common bile duct diameters by experienced radiologist at the Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital at Jaipur, India. In addition, anthropometric data on weight, height, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained for each of the study subjects.

    The mean diameter observed in our study was 4.1 mm with a standard deviation of 1.01 mm. This was similar to that reported by Parulekar [6] in his study on 200 normal subjects. Mesenas et al., [7], reported a higher mean diameter of 5 mm (SD 1.9 mm). In a study in Korea, Park et al., [8] reported the average diameter of the common bile duct was 6.7 mm. Other studies have reported lower mean diameters at less than 4 mm [9–11].

    The lower and upper limits of normal common bile duct diameter were found to be 2.0 mm and 7.9 mm respectively in our study. However, majority of the study subjects (95%) had a common bile duct diameter of Freitas ML, Bell RL, Duffy AJ. Choledocholithiasis: evolving standards for diagnosis and management. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2006; 12 (20):3162–67. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

    Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry Nidhi Lal 1 Demonstrator, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine &

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    best cbd oil for crohn’s

    Best CBD Oil For Crohn’s – Top 4 Relieving Products

    Crohn’s disease [1] is a chronic, long-term type of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. It is one of two main types of inflammatory bowel disease along with ulcerative colitis. Both conditions involve an immune reaction against the intestinal tract. Crohn’s disease symptoms [2] are unpleasant and characterized by bloody diarrhea, fever, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and abdominal pain. It is controlled by medications that target the inflammation, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, steroids, immune modifiers, or biologic agents. While the exact cause is not understood, it is thought that a combination of genetics, environment, or an overactive immune system may provoke the disease. CBD oil dosage for crohn’s disease is considered a potential cure.

    While symptoms may come and go, the onset of symptoms is unpredictable. The treatment goal is the remission of Crohn’s disease symptoms caused by the inflammatory bowel disease process. A special diet is often followed to control the symptoms that include the elimination of alcohol and a restriction of fiber, butter, carbonated beverages, caffeine products, dairy, fatty foods, and corn. Despite the limitations, patients need to maintain a healthy diet because inflammation makes it difficult to absorb nutrients. Avoiding “trigger foods” may help alleviate the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms of gas, bloating, and abdominal cramping.

    Top 4 Best cbd oil dosage for crohn’s disease (February. 2021)

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    CBD Oil for Crohn’s

    About 15% of inflammatory bowel (IBD) patients report [3] using cannabis to alleviate their symptoms. It appears that medical marijuana has a place in the treatment of IBD. A recent study [4] showed benefits in using 30g marijuana/month that translated into 21 mg THC and 170 mg CBD per day for each of the 173 patients followed. Cannabis decreased the need for other medications. The use of cannabis oil is reported [5] among IBD adolescent patients in another study. Their perceived health benefits from use were on sleep quality, appetite, and nausea.

    In the lower digestive tract, endocannabinoids are supposed to protect the gut and reduce motility and inflammation – both of which may lead to the disabling pain associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Analgesic properties [6] of cannabis products are proposed to be via the TRPV1 endocannabinoid system receptors, and relief is often sought using cannabis oils for the abdominal pain that accompanies the cramping of IBD. The anti-inflammatory effect cannabidiol (CBD) has on tissues should help decrease intestinal inflammation-associated pain. CBD has potent anti-inflammatory activities on pro-inflammatory mediators, making it an ideal choice for the treatment of people with IBD. Read on to find out the best CBD oil dosage for Crohn’s disease.

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    Top 5 Best CBD Oil for Crohn’s Disease

    Spruce CBD

    Spruce is a family-run CBD brand that offers high-quality, lab-tested, full-spectrum CBD oils made from one of the finest, oldest hemp strains in the United States.

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    Established in 2018, Spruce is a CBD brand based in Raleigh, North Carolina. The company prides itself on making American-made CBD products and some of the best CBD oils available.

    Spruce stands out from the competition in several ways. For instance, it’s a family-run business, which is unusual in the CBD industry.

    Its CBD is sourced from a time-tested strain of hemp cultivated in the United States for over two hundred years. The CBD-rich oil is harvested from organically grown hemp from farms in Kentucky and North Carolina.

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    Spruce’s CBD oils are made with lab-tested hemp extracts, and it provides all of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial compounds found in the original plant.

    It has a pleasing peppermint taste and comes in 30 ml bottles with two CBD potencies: 25 mg of CBD per ml (750 mg total) and 80 mg of CBD per ml (2400 mg total).

    The company carries a wide range of products, including topicals, lotions, balms, tinctures, oils, and capsules.

    Medterra

    Medterra manufactures broad-spectrum oil with entourage effects, plus its wide variety of products are all CO2 extracted to yield the best CBD oils for the money.

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    Medterra is a reputable brand with various CBD products to choose from, including creams, tinctures, edibles, oils, and supplements. Their product line-up includes supplies for your pets.

    Their CBD broad-spectrum tincture comes in two potencies, 1000 mg. and 2000 mg. in two flavors plus natural unflavored. CBD oil comes in 500 mg. – 3,000 mg. bottles.

    CO2, the gold standard extraction method, can remove THC and impurities from the hemp seed oil to ensure quality CBD oil products.

    The wide variety of CBD products all come with a detailed third-party Certificate of Analysis of potency and contaminants. Better yet, it is certified by the U.S. Hemp Authority, which issues guidelines on stringent hemp processing. Third-party testing, as for most products on this list, is conducted on all Medterra products.

    MCT is added as a carrier oil and to provide fatty acids. MCT helps the body absorb cannabinoids in the products.

    CBDPure

    CBDPure is a family-run business that offers organically grown hemp at an affordable price.

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    This organic farm began in 2016 in Colorado with a mission to provide the best CBD products on the market. The farm does not use pesticides or herbicides on its organic ranch in Colorado or its ranch in Washington.

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    All of their products are minimally processed and grown on family-run farms.

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    They offer one natural flavor in three different concentrations of full-spectrum hemp oil, 300 mg, 600 mg, and 900 mg in 30 cc bottles.

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    Joy Organics

    The company prides itself on its transport to all U.S. states and in its freedom from harsh metals, THC and gluten.

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    Joy Organic uses only phytocannabinoid-rich hemp that contains a range of 112 cannabinoids in its oils for a rich entourage effect.. Most CBD oils have a trace of THC in them, but not Joy Organic! Full-spectrum CBD oils are also available with both CBD and less than 0.3% of THC to create the full entourage effect.

    The CBD products go through a testing process whereby a Certificate of Quality Assurance and a Certificate of Analysis are generated by both in-house testing and a third-party lab. Both of these represent standards of quality.

    Joy Organic prides itself on using only the finest U.S. grown hemp. Standards at American hemp farms are higher than those in other countries.

    The CBD products come in four flavors, orange, tranquil, natural, and mint. The four flavors come in different potencies, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg per 30 ml bottle.

    The oil itself undergoes a process to make it more bioavailable, a nanotechnology

    emulsion technique that involves breaking down the molecule into smaller, more digestible components.

    CBD Oil Dosage for Crohn’s Disease

    The dosage for Crohn’s disease has not been identified in the literature. We have gleaned that too low of a dose is ineffective at treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). For example, during eight weeks of treatment with 10 mg cannabidiol (CBD), no significant improvement [7] was noted in 20 patients. Researchers conclude from this study that the dose might have been too low, but they also mention that this was a CBD isolate and do not have the benefits of other cannabinoids for an entourage effect.

    In a study of 127 patients undergoing treatment [7] for Crohn’s disease, the dosage used to be effective in intestinal inflammation was 170 mg of CBD in the form of medical cannabis, which also contained THC. This study points to the fact that IBD patients may need a higher dose than 10 mg to exert the necessary anti-inflammatory effects and impact functional symptoms. It also may indicate that using a CBD isolate may perform differently than full extracts from the cannabis sativa plant with all the entourage effects.

    In animal models, research has shown positive effects on inflammation in the gut by rectally administering cannabidiol at a dosage of 20 mg/kg. This study indicated a possible role [8] for topical administration directly into the gut mucosa to help decrease inflammation.

    In another study on rats, cannabinoids [9] that included THC, at a dose of 10 mg/kg showed a reduction in inflammation and functional symptoms. The dosage curve followed a bell-shaped pattern.

    Before trying CBD for gut inflammation, one should seek medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment first as the dosage for this cannabinoid needs tailoring to the individual and drug interactions assessed before administering any dose. Involving the health care system in your decision to use CBD oil will facilitate coordination of treatment.

    How Does CBD Oil Help Crohn’s Disease

    Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, endogenous cannabinoids, and atypical cannabinoids are upregulated in inflammation [10] , and their presence and stimulation aggravate colitis. In contrast, cannabinoid receptor antagonism and cannabinoid receptor-deficient animal models reverse these anti-inflammatory effects. The endocannabinoid system is implicated [11] in gut homeostasis, regulation of intestinal motility, visceral sensation, inflammation, and being recently involved in treating IBD.

    Another study demonstrated [12] a role for cannabinoids in reducing intestinal permeability and reducing inflammation and regulation of intestinal bacteria, especially as it related to alcohol use disorders. All of these factors can play a role in symptomatic flare-ups in patients with IBD.

    How to Take CBD Oil for Crohn’s Disease

    Many people turn to CBD with and without medical advice. Those who may not use CBD may use cannabis to control their pain, weight loss, nausea, and other side-effects of their illness. Cannabis or CBD might play a role in increasing the quality of life for patients with IBD.

    You can take CBD in the form of oils, tinctures, capsules, or applied topically in the form of lotion, balms, or creams. For patients with IBD, the best way to take CBD is orally or through the bloodstream by putting tinctures or oils under the tongue or inhaling the oils’ vapors. One might achieve significant health benefits from incorporating the many CBD products on the market into their lifestyle.

    Research on CBD and Crohn’s Disease

    To date, most of the research has been on cannabis-related products containing a mixture of THC and CBD. The problem is, THC is not legal in every state, and not all people want the “high” effects associated with the use of such products. For this reason, hemp-extracted CBD products are being explored as a treatment option for IBD. The problem with researching CBD oil dosage for crohn’s disease is that the Food and Drug Administration has only patented one CBD drug, which was for epilepsy. It has not been approved for the treatment of this disease.

    In a novel approach, a patented enema [13] (all rights reserved) formulation containing CBD has been introduced into the market. The enema protects the intestinal permeability barrier, controls diarrhea, and improves microbiome function. It was explicitly designed with IBD patients in mind after an extensive medical review of the literature.

    Still, in light of all the positive data on how CBD might help people with IBD, the medical system seems reluctant to embrace its therapeutic values in health promotion and disease prevention. Many patients could achieve significant health benefits from the use of these products. However, the bottom line is, more research study is in need.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Many people turn to CBD for their pain relief and to benefit their overall health. People with IBD have no guidance on dosage for their condition because the FDA has not approved it for use in treating the side-effects associated with IBD. From a review of the studies, it seems that too low of a dose is ineffective at treating symptoms such as weight loss or pain, but the bell-shaped curve present in other dosage studies indicate there might be a “sweet spot” or dosage where symptoms resolve, but a
    higher or lower dose will not have the same remission effects. The best thing to ask for medical advice from your healthcare provider.

    CBD might help people with IBD manage their health better by decreasing their disease’s symptoms through pain reduction and anti-inflammatory actions. However limited, studies have shown beneficial effects on IBD symptoms in both animals and humans with the use of CBD.

    Chemo and Hash plant, both Indica strains, are suitable for Crohn’s disease. Lemon
    Jack, Golden Pineapple, and K2 are other strains good for this disorder.

    Spruce’s 2,400 mg full-spectrum CBD delivers 80 mg of CBD per 1 milliliter (ml) dose,
    which is equivalent to a full dropper.

    Health Canal avoids using tertiary references. We have strict sourcing guidelines and rely on peer-reviewed studies, academic researches from medical associations and institutions. To ensure the accuracy of articles in Health Canal, you can read more about the editorial process here

    1. Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation. (2020). What Is Crohn’s Disease? Available from: https://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/what-is-crohns-disease.
    2. Crohn’s and Colitis. (2016). WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF CROHN’S DISEASE? Available from: https://www.crohnsandcolitis.com/crohns/disease-symptoms‌.
    3. Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. (2020). An overview of cannabis based treatment in Crohn’s disease. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17474124.2020.1740590‌.
    4. Naftali, T., Bar-Lev Schleider, L., Sklerovsky Benjaminov, F., Lish, I., Konikoff, F.M. and Ringel, Y. (2019). Medical cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31567639/.‌
    5. Hoffenberg, E.J., McWilliams, S., Mikulich-Gilbertson, S., Murphy, B., Hoffenberg, A. and Hopfer, C.J. (2019). Cannabis Oil Use by Adolescents and Young Adults With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 68(3), 348–352. Available from: https://journals.lww.com/jpgn/FullText/2019/03000/Cannabis_Oil_Use_by_Adolescents_and_Young_Adults.16.aspx.‌
    6. Barrie, N. and Manolios, N. (2017). The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. European Journal of Rheumatology, 4(3), 210–218. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5685274/.
    7. Naftali, T., Mechulam, R., Marii, A., Gabay, G., Stein, A., Bronshtain, M., Laish, I., Benjaminov, F. and Konikoff, F.M. (2017). Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn’s Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 62(6), 1615–1620. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28349233/.
    8. ‌Schicho, R. and Storr, M. (2012). Topical and Systemic Cannabidiol Improves Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Colitis in Mice. Pharmacology, 89(3–4), 149–155. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22414698/.‌
    9. Jamontt, J., Molleman, A., Pertwee, R. and Parsons, M. (2010). The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation andin vitromotility disturbances in rat colitis. British Journal of Pharmacology, 160(3), 712–723. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20590574/.‌
    10. Leinwand, K.L., Gerich, M.E., Hoffenberg, E.J. and Collins, C.B. (2017). Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 23(2), 192–199. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28079617/.
    11. Alhouayek, M. and Muccioli, G.G. (2012). The endocannabinoid system in inflammatory bowel diseases: from pathophysiology to therapeutic opportunity. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 18(10), 615–625. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22917662/.‌
    12. Karoly, H.C., Mueller, R.L., Bidwell, L.C. and Hutchison, K.E. (2019). Cannabinoids and the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 44(2), 340–353. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31803950/.
    13. ‌Price, S. (2020). CBD and inflammatory bowel disease: not just a gut feeling. Health Europa. Available from: https://www.healtheuropa.eu/icbd-cbd-formulation-ibd/100721/.
    About Kathy Shattler, MS, RDN

    Kathy Shattler has been a Registered Dietitian for over 25 years and currently runs her own Telehealth Clinic while freelance writing in her spare time. She graduated with a Master of Science degree in Human Nutrition from Michigan State University and has a plethora of experience in both clinical nutrition as well as public health. She has been deemed a trailblazer in her profession and continues to strive for excellence in public health education in integrative medicine and in her professional writing career.

    Having crohn's disease doesn't mean you have to deal with its symptoms. Here are the best CBD oil dosage for crohn's disease in 2021!

    Can Marijuana or CBD Help With My Crohn’s Disease?

    If you’re in treatment and still dealing with symptoms of your Crohn’s disease, it’s reasonable to ask whether any alternative therapies might help. Two related options that have become increasingly popular recently are marijuana and CBD. Both come from different varieties of a plant known as Cannabis sativa, or just cannabis. People also call the plant products that come from hemp CBD.

    Some people with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s, are using cannabis of one type or another for symptom relief. There’s also a little bit of evidence that cannabis may help with some symptoms of Crohn’s, including improving appetite and sleep. But there’s a lot to consider first before you run out to try it. For one, while some people do seem to feel better when using cannabis, it’s isn’t clear it helps with their disease.

    “We know the effects of cannabis in the gut and brain can have an impact,” says Jami Kinnucan, MD, a gastroenterologist at the University of Michigan. “So, the question raised is: Is there in an improvement objectively? Does inflammatory burden change?”

    The answer is no, she says. There’s no objective improvement in inflammation.

    That’s important because Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory condition. Many of the treatments your doctor prescribes help you feel better by controlling the inflammation. So far, it looks like cannabis might make you feel better too, but without controlling your IBD. One reason that’s a concern, Kinnucan says, is that cannabis could mask or hide symptoms.

    “If you are having regular abdominal pain, you need to look at the disease,” she says. “Often it’s untreated or undertreated. You don’t want to use cannabis as a Band-Aid.”

    What the Studies Say

    Experts generally agree that the data on cannabis for Crohn’s is uncertain for now. The only data in people with Crohn’s disease come from three small clinical studies. Altogether, those studies include fewer than 100 people with active Crohn’s.

    Only one of the three suggests that cannabis in the form of marijuana cigarettes might help people who hadn’t done well with other treatments control their disease. Five out of 11 people who smoked cannabis cigarettes for 8 weeks in the study had a remission, compared to one person in the group that smoked placebo cigarettes. The other two studies looked at CBD oil. Neither found CBD helped people control their Crohn’s disease. One of them did show some evidence that the treatment helped improve quality of life.

    Continued

    More research is needed in more people with Crohn’s disease, and there are studies ongoing. One reason it’s complicated is that cannabis comes in many varieties. The plant has two main active ingredients: THC (short for delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (short for cannabidiol). It’s the THC in marijuana that gives you a high. The CBD products you can buy usually come from hemp and shouldn’t have much if any THC. We need more time to study the various compounds found in cannabis.

    The evidence available — while not convincing — doesn’t rule out the possibility that cannabis might help some people with Crohn’s. Kinnucan says one reason studies so far may not show a benefit is that they might not use the best cannabis formulations. There’s some experimental evidence that cannabinoids can help with inflammation. But, she says, it might take a more targeted approach to see those benefits in people with IBD. The existing studies also have been small and short-term.

    “If we followed patients longer, we might see some benefit,” Kinnucan says. “Maybe 8 weeks isn’t long enough.”

    What to Consider

    For someone with Crohn’s disease interested in using cannabis, Kinnucan says there’s no reason to think it will help if you already feel well and your disease is in remission. For a person who has Crohn’s but doesn’t have obvious symptoms, it’s possible that adding cannabis to other medications might have some benefits, although those aren’t proven. If you want to replace their prescribed medicines with cannabis, she says, “we certainly don’t have any evidence to support that.”

    People who use cannabis may be more likely than those who don’t to stop traditional therapy. And there are risks when you stop the treatment you need. “One of the biggest risks of relapse is hospitalization requiring steroids or surgery,” Kinnucan says.

    She says to talk to your doctor about your interest in cannabis and the symptoms that you’re hoping to control. Many doctors may not be comfortable having those conversations, but she encourages it as a way to learn more about symptoms, and people are using cannabis on their own. The bottom line is that given limited evidence on cannabis and uncertainty about its safety, it’s hard for doctors to offer advice.

    Continued

    “Providers have no idea what to tell patients who say, ‘OK, I want to start cannabis. What should I do?’” Kinnucan says. “There’s limited guidance about how to advise patients.”

    Your doctor may have other ideas about ways to help you feel better. For now, if you’re set on trying it, Kinnucan suggests starting with the lowest THC concentration and going from there to limit potential side effects. Work with a medicinal pharmacy that may have some more advice about what’s available.

    The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation’s official position statement on medical cannabis notes that while there’s some evidence the cannabinoids found in our bodies naturally might help with inflammation, it’s less clear that similar compounds from cannabis do. There’s some evidence that cannabis may help with symptoms, but its use is limited by other concerns about side effects and safety.

    There are also legal issues to consider when it comes to cannabis. CBD is federally legal, and it’s becoming easier to get it. Marijuana isn’t legal at the federal level. More states are allowing it, but rules and restrictions vary. If you’re thinking about using or recommending medical cannabis, CBD, or marijuana, you need to check your state laws carefully. Employers may also have drug use policies to consider.

    Sources

    Mayo Clinic: “Medical Marijuana.”

    Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology: “An overview of cannabis based treatment in Crohn’s disease.”

    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology: “Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study.”

    Jami Kinnucan, MD, gastroenterologist, University of Michigan.

    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: “Cannabis for the treatment of Crohn’s disease.”

    Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation: “Foundation Position Statement: Medical cannabis,” “Medical Cannabis.”

    There’s a little evidence that cannabis may help with some symptoms of Crohn’s, including improving appetite and sleep, but there’s a lot to consider first before you try it. Learn more.

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    how to make cbd coconut oil

    How to Make Cannabis Coconut Oil (canna Oil)

    Introduction: How to Make Cannabis Coconut Oil (canna Oil)

    Cannabis coconut oil is a really versatile way to consume cannabis. It’s great taken alone or baked into all kinds of edibles – most strains of cannabis beautifully complement the flavor of coconut oil! Canna oil makes medicating super accessible, too – you can use indica, sativa, or even high CBD strains to get the desired effect you want.

    It’s also super easy to make, and a great way to use up excess trim, kief or hash from harvest. In this instructable I’ll show you my favorite way to do it – simmering on the stove top! But I’ll tell you how to do it in a crockpot too.

    This is a very fast and no-fuss version of canna oil – through lots of reading and quite a few experiments I really don’t believe it’s necessary to simmer it for-ev-errr and over complicate it. This method will give you a potent, tasty and fancy canna oil.

    Step 1: What You’ll Need

    tools:

    • cheesecloth
    • metal strainer/sieve
    • bowl or large measuring cup
    • jar or bowl to store the canna oil

    materials:

    • decarboxylated cannabis (buds, trim, kief, hash – 40 grams)
    • unrefined coconut oil (2 cups)

    We’ll talk a little about dosing on the next step.

    Unsure how to decarboxylate cannabis? Click here to find out!

    Step 2: Dosing + Strains + Expectations

    (Pictured above – Doctor Who water hash, Doctor Who in bud form – so purple. Doctor Who sugar leaf trim)

    What I’m using for this batch:

    • 2 cups unrefined coconut oil
    • 40 g Doctor Who trim, decarboxylated

    This is a fairly strong dose – about 1.5 g of trim per tablespoon of canna oil. The medibles this canna oil makes will be used primarily for combating migraines so stronger is better!

    Guidelines for dosing:

    I recommend using anywhere from 0.5-1.5 g of trim/bud/hash/etc per tablespoon of oil. If this is your first time experimenting with canna oil, try using 16 grams of cannabis to 2 cups of oil.

    When using buds, it’s okay to use less than you would if you were using trim as there will be more trichromes present and therefore more THC. If I was using buds instead of trim in this batch, I probably would have used 0.5 grams of bud per tablespoon of coconut oil.

    For more information on dosing cannabis, I really recommend picking up a copy of The Ganja Kitchen Revolution by Jessica Catalano. The book includes a very nice dosing chart and explains how to demystify making edibles with the right amount of THC for you.

    This article on The Cannabist also includes a helpful way of figuring out the THC content in edibles.

    What to expect when using canna oil:

    Cannabis taken orally a totally different beast – it can take you much longer to feel it, and the effects can linger much longer on average. Canna oil is often quite potent and can make you super sleepy, so never try a new dose when you have obligations later. 😉

    You can try to combat sleepiness by using only sativas in your canna oil, or by choosing a strain high in CBD. But it might still make you a teeny bit tired (edibles always do that to some folks!), so always use caution.

    What to do if you take too much canna oil:

    If you ever take too much while trying to figure out the proper dose, don’t worry! You may feel anxious or wonder why you ever thought this was a good idea – but I promise it will pass and the benefits are worth it.

    Your best bet is to drink a glass of water and lie down. Sleeping is always the best possible way to handle having a bit too much cannabis.

    If sleep seems unreachable, try dimming the lights and putting on music or the TV. You can try talking to someone too. Whatever relaxes you! Just keep in mind that it will pass in a few hours at most.

    Step 3: Combine the Coconut Oil and Cannabis and Simmer

    Combine the cannabis and coconut oil in a small saucepan over the lowest heat you can manage.

    Once the coconut oil has melted, let the mix simmer uncovered (stirring ever so often) for an hour.

    HEY! If you’d like to do this in a crockpot you definitely can. Just let it go on low for a couple hours. It’s not necessary to take it longer than that.

    If your canna oil turns out super green or not green at all, that’s fine. The green-ness relates only to the chlorophyll present, not how strong the canna oil is.

    Step 4: Strain

    For straining, use cheesecloth in a sieve over a large measuring cup. A sieve normally isn’t fine enough on its own! It won’t matter too much if you end up with particulates in the oil, but it always looks nicer without them.

    Place two layers of cheesecloth in the sieve and put it over the measuring cup.

    Pour the hot oil and cannabis mixture into the cheesecloth.

    Let it drip for an hour or so and then squeeze the rest out by hand.

    You can use the processed cannabis in other things once you’ve squeezed out the oil, but it shouldn’t have much THC left in it at all. One of the most awesome ways is to mix it with softened butter – you end up with an awesome cannabis compound butter that you can use on toast or maybe even put a dollop on a steak or under the skin of a chicken.

    However, don’t feel bad if you just compost it or throw it out – nearly all the good stuff is in the canna oil now!

    Step 5: Cool and Store

    Pour the canna oil into a glass jar or bowl and leave uncovered until room temperature and beginning to solidify. (Leaving it uncovered is very important because we want to avoid condensation forming in the jar)

    Once entirely cooled, close the container and store in the fridge or in a cool dark place. This will keep for up to a year!

    See how dark it is before and how light it is when it solidifies? That’s what it should look like if you don’t simmer it too long and you’re not too rough with it. If you poked it a ton it might be more green.

    Step 6: Using Cannabis Coconut Oil

    You can consume this coconut canna oil on its own or use it in edibles!

    If this is your first time trying it, I recommend taking 1/4-1/2 tablespoon by mouth to start. Wait at least 3-4 hours before taking more. How you feel after this will let you know if you need to increase or decrease your dose. It will also give you a baseline for edibles.

    If making edibles, try using recipes you’ve made before. Knowing how many cookies, muffins, slices of cake, etc. that a recipe produces will allow you to figure out about how much THC per serving there is. (Because we know we’re using a certain amount of cannabis per tablespoon of coconut oil – you can determine the strength based on the amount of oil you used in the recipe and how many servings it makes)

    Another good thing to keep in mind: you can even do half canna oil and half butter if you need the edibles to be a little less strong.

    How to Make Cannabis Coconut Oil (canna Oil): Cannabis coconut oil is a really versatile way to consume cannabis. It's great taken alone or baked into all kinds of edibles – most strains of cannabis beautifully complement the flavor of coconut oil! Canna oil makes medicating super accessible, t…

    How to Make Homemade Cannabis Oil (or CBD Oil)

    Are you interested in making your own cannabis-infused oil? I don’t blame you! Making homemade cannabis oil is a great way to create a highly healing, concentrated, and versatile cannabis product. It is ready to use in edible recipes, topical salves, or even enjoy straight on its own. Especially if you use organic homegrown cannabis like we do, this is an excellent way to use up any extra or “fluffy” stuff too. It also happens to be very easy to make cannabis oil at home!

    Follow along with these step-by-step instructions to learn how to make homemade cannabis oil. We’ll also briefly discuss the science behind cannabis oil, and what types of cannabis to use to make oil. Finally, we’ll go over various ways to use homemade cannabis oil, including some notes about caution and dosing with edibles.

    What is Cannabis-Infused Oil

    Cannabis oil is made by lightly heating (and thus infusing) cannabis in a “carrier oil”. Cannabinoids like CBD and THC, the most active components in cannabis, are both hydrophobic. That means they don’t like water, and are actually repelled by water molecules. On the flip side, CBD and THC are both fat-soluble. They like to bind with fatty acid molecules – such as those found in oil. When cannabis is steeped in oil, the THC and CBD molecules leave the buds or plant material and become one with the oil instead.

    A wide variety of oils can be used to make cannabis oil. However, coconut oil and olive oil are the most popular and common. Coconut oil and olive oil are both pleasant-tasting and very nourishing for skin, making them versatile options for either medicated edibles or topical applications. Plus, they both have strong natural antifungal and antimicrobial properties. This helps prevent mold and extends the shelf life of your cannabis oil. Coconut oil is higher in saturated fat, which may bind fat-loving cannabinoids even more readily than olive oil.

    Hemp Oil, CBD Oil, THC, or…

    Your choice! You can make cannabis-infused oil with hemp or marijuana, depending on what is legal and available in your area. Or, what you’re desired end-results are. Hemp oil will only contain CBD (or a very minuscule amount of THC), while marijuana-infused oil will likely contain both THC and CBD. The ratio and concentration of THC and/or CBD depends on the strain of marijuana and particular plant it came from.

    Generally speaking, THC is psychoactive and CBD is not. But THC does a lot more than change your state of mind! Studies show that THC has even stronger pain and stress-relieving properties than CBD, which is known to help with insomnia, seizures and inflammation. While they each have notable and distinct stand-alone benefits, an oil or salve containing both CBD and THC has the highest potential for a wide array of health benefits (albeit illegal in some places). Known as the “entourage effect”, the synergistic combination of both THC and CBD through whole-plant cannabis consumption and extracts is more powerful than either one on its own.

    I personally like to use strains that are high in both THC and CBD to make oil and salves. To learn more about the differences between strains, CBD and THC, see this article: “Sativa, Indica & Autoflowers, the Differences Explained”.

    Why Make Cannabis Oil

    Cannabis oil is the foundation ingredient for ultra-healing homemade topical lotions, ointments, and salves – my favorite way to use it! Both THC and CBD have excellent anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Studies have shown that cannabinoids have the ability to reduce acne, fine lines and wrinkles, soothe redness and irritation, and balance natural skin oils. Also, cannabinoids (THC especially) are analgesic – meaning they reduce pain. I regularly use our homemade cannabis salve on my knees, ankles, and other aching or inflamed joints and muscles.

    Furthermore, making cannabis oil is one of the most reliable ways to create medicated edible cannabis products. Even so, it is extremely difficult to determine the exact potency of homemade edibles or cannabis oil. Because of this, it is suggested to consume with caution in very small doses at first. Cannabis oil can be consumed on its own, or added to other edible cannabis recipes.

    On the other hand, simply chopping up weed to add to your brownie mix is not a good idea, for many reasons. As we already explored, cannabinoids are fat-soluble. That means that they not only bind with oils during the infusion process, but also that cannabinoids are more readily absorbed and digested in our bodies when they’re consumed with fat – such as oil. If you add raw cannabis to baked goods, it is less likely that the cannabinoids will bind to fats for a consistent and effective edible experience. Using decarboxylated cannabis to make cannabis oil further increases precision and consistency.

    Using Decarboxylated Cannabis for Oil

    The cannabinoid compounds found in raw cannabis (THCA and CBDA) are not the same as those found in cannabis that has been heated – such as those inhaled (THC and CBD) when you ignite or vaporize cannabis, or when cooking with cannabis. The process of heating and “activating” cannabis is called decarboxylation. It is what makes cannabis psychoactive, and also more potent for medicinal applications.

    Yet when it comes to heating cannabis, it is best to do so low, slow, and methodically. There are time and temperature “sweet spots” where raw THCA and CBDA are converted into active THC and CBD. But without a precise process, over-heating or under-heating cannabis can lead to uneven activation of THC and CBD. Even worse, it may even destroy the THC or CBD altogether!

    Most cannabis oil recipes call for cannabis that has already been properly decarboxylated first. The most common and fuss-free way is to decarb cannabis in the oven, and then add it to oil over a very low heat afterwards – avoiding further decarboxylation. Some folks choose to decarb their raw cannabis on the stovetop simultaneously with the oil infusion process. However, that requires significantly more careful monitoring to hit that time-temperature sweet spot (and not ruin it).

    Therefore, our cannabis oil recipe calls for decarboxylated cannabis as well. I provide very brief instructions on how to decarb raw cannabis below, but you can read further information about exactly how and why to decarb cannabis in the oven in this article.

      1 cup of loosely ground decarboxylated cannabis. To be more precise, I suggest to use a kitchen scale to weigh out approximately 7 to 10 grams (a quarter ounce or just over), depending on your tolerance.

    1 cup coconut oil or other oil of choice, such as olive oil. We like to use organic coconut oil because it is solid at room temperature (and tastes good), which makes it perfect to eat a tiny spoonful of, spread on bread like butter, or use in a salve. (Note that our salve recipe calls for 1.5 cups coconut oil, so scale up if you intend to make that)

    Optional: A few grams of raw cannabis. In addition to decarboxylated cannabis, we like to add a little handful of raw homegrown bud to our oil as well. While the most significant and well-documented health benefits from cannabis are attributed to active THC and CBD (found in decarbed cannabis), there are also emerging studies showing some promising health benefits from their raw forms – THCA and CBDA. Therefore, we like to use a little of each to create a full-spectrum and well-rounded finished product.

    A double-boiler, or make-shift double boiler (such as a glass pyrex bowl or stainless steel bowl perched on top of a saucepan with water below) OR a crock pot/slow cooker

    Fine mesh strainer

    Storage container, such as a mason jar with lid

  • Note: This process will create a fairly strong cannabis odor in your home
  • HOW TO MAKE HOMEMADE CANNABIS OIL

    The most important aspect of making cannabis oil is to not overheat it. In fact, some folks choose to add decarbed cannabis to oil and allow it to infuse at room temperature (in the dark) for several weeks, rather than heating it at all.

    The heat applied in this recipe simply helps expedite the cannabinoid extraction process to bind with oil. However, because we are starting with already decarboxylated cannabis, the goal is to avoid heating it over 200 degrees. 120 to 180°F is even better. Maintaining a lower temperature will preserve the already-active THC and CBD content as well as the terpenes. That is, unless you intentionally want to convert THC to CBN to create a very sleepy and sedate final product.

    That is where the double-boiler or slow cooker (with a low temperature setting) come in handy! Even over the lowest flame, heating oil in a pot directly on the stove is much more difficult to prevent overheating, and also creates “hot spots” – destroying our precious cannabinoids.

    I suggest monitoring the oil temperature with a probe thermometer if possible. Because oils have a higher boiling point (or “smoke point”) than water, the oil will not appear to be as hot as it really is! For example, the oil may be well over 212 degrees but not visibly bubble and boil like water would at the same temperature.

      If your cannabis is not yet decarboxylated, grind or tear it up into fairly small pieces. Spread evenly on a baking sheet, and heat it in the oven on 250°F for 25 to 30 minutes.

    Add water to the bottom pan of your double-boiler. Now add 1 cup of coconut oil to the top section of the double-boiler. Heat until it melts. (OR, on the low/warm setting in a crock pot)

    Stir in 7-10 grams of decarboxylated cannabis into the melted oil. Feel free to also include an optional few grams of raw ground cannabis if you desire.

    Continue to heat the cannabis and oil over a low heat for 30 to 60 minutes, stirring occasionally. You can continue this process for several hours if desired, though many recipes call for only 20 to 30 minutes. If available, use a probe thermometer to check the temperature. Adjust the heat as needed to maintain the oil below 200°F. We aim for a target temperature range of around 130 to 150°F and infuse for one hour.

    When the time is up, line a strainer with cheesecloth and position it over a glass bowl. Pour the cannabis and oil mixture through the strainer. Gather the cheesecloth and gently squeeze out the excess oil from the cannabis. Warning: the oil will be hot, and your hands will get greasy! You may want to wear food-grade gloves.

  • Transfer the strained cannabis-infused oil into a storage container. It is best to use a glass storage container with a tight-fitting lid. Store the finished oil in a cool dark location. We keep ours in the refrigerator.
  • Ideally, use your cannabis oil within 6 months to 1 year. As long as it doesn’t mold, the oil doesn’t “go bad” over time – though the potency can decrease as some THC will naturally convert to a more sleepy cannabinoid called CBN.

    How to Use Cannabis Oil

    When it is finished, you can use you cannabis oil any way you’d like!

      Add homemade cannabis oil in any body care recipe that calls for cannabis-infused oil, such as this topical salve recipe. It can help heal sore muscles, joints, inflammation, eczema, psoriasis, and even slow or prevent skin cancer cell growth!

    Use cannabis oil in meals or medicated edible recipes. Try to use as low of heat and cooking time as possible to preserve cannabinoids and terpenes. Look for “no bake” recipes, or ones that you can only lightly heat the oil again in a double-boiler. For example, you could make these chocolates, some no-bake cookies, or add medicated coconut oil to a frosting recipe. Another option is to use the coconut oil like butter on toast, or mix it into already-cooked pasta or sauce. (See the dosing information and caution below!)

    Enjoy a small dose in a cup of hot tea or other warm beverage, perhaps with a dab of honey.

    Consume a small dose of the oil straight on its own. Try holding a small amount of oil in your mouth or below your tongue (sublingually). According to Leafly, “sublingual dosing offers a fast onset, shorter duration, and lower intensity than traditional oral cannabis edibles”.

  • Use the cannabis-infused oil directly on skin
  • Homemade Cannabis Oil Potency: Proceed with Caution

    Homemade cannabis edibles are tricky because it is very difficult to determine their exact potency. Without laboratory testing (which is expensive and not readily available to most people) it is virtually impossible to calculate the THC and CBD content of the finished cannabis oil or medicated edibles that you prepared.

    First of all, if you are using homegrown cannabis like we do, then you likely don’t know the strength of the bud you started the process with. Even if a strain is marketed to have a particular THC and CBD content or ratio, homegrown plants can vary wildly depending on how they were grown, harvested, dried, cured, and stored. Furthermore, there are variations within plants (expressed as phenotypes) that leads them to have differences even among plants of the same strain.

    Say you make oil or edibles with cannabis purchased from a dispensary, and thus has a tested and known THC and CBD content. Even then, the potency of the end product depends on several variables that make it difficult to calculate: How old the pot is, and how you stored it. The time and temperature it was decarboxylated. The process you used to make your oil or edible. Did you cook the the edible further? How old is the edible, and how has it been stored? All of those factors can either increase active THC and CBD content, or decrease it with further heat and time.

    Dosing Homemade Cannabis Oil & Edibles

    Always start out with very small amounts of cannabis edibles or oil (particularly those containing THC) – also known as “micro-dosing”. I don’t consume edibles often, though we regularly vaporize cannabis and make salve. When we do make cannabis coconut oil, I always start out with only 1/4 to 1/2 a teaspoon of straight oil and then scale up next time if needed – but not right away!

    Once you do figure out the perfect personal dose for your homemade oil, you can work your math magic with an edible recipe to determine how much of it to eat. For example, say my perfect dose is 1/2 teaspoon. I want to make this chocolate recipe, which calls for 1/2 a cup of coconut oil. With a quick Google search, I see that there are 24 teaspoons in half a cup. That means there are 48 Deanna-size doses worth of cannabis oil in that batch of chocolate!

    In a perfect world, that recipe yields me 48 individual chocolates, ready to pop in my mouth in the “just right” dose. However, the final yield will depend on the type of chocolate mold I use. Perhaps I will end up with only 24 chocolates. Then, I would need to only eat half a chocolate at a time. Get it? You can apply the same math magic to a cookie recipe, tub of frosting, or whatever else you dream up – assuming you portion them out evenly.

    The Effects of Cannabis In Edibles Versus Smoking or Vaporizing

    Remember, it takes far longer to feel the effects when you consume cannabis as an edible than when you smoke or vaporize it! Rather than instantly crossing the blood-brain barrier via the lungs, ingested cannabis needs to go through your digestive system before you’ll feel anything. That process can take between one to three hours, depending on your metabolism and what else is in your system.

    The most common mistake that people make when consuming cannabis products (aside from eating too much) is getting impatient. They think it isn’t working, and take another dose shortly after the first one. Then when it all hits, that mellow ride can quickly turn into an “oh shit” moment.

    In addition to taking longer to “kick in”, edibles linger in your system. Meaning, you feel the effects for significantly longer. A high from ingested cannabis can last up to 12 hours.

    Furthermore, the effects of edibles are different than those felt when smoking or vaporizing cannabis. The edible experience is often much more intense, potentially disorienting, and provides a stronger “body high”. It can also cause a racing heartbeat and/or nausea if you overdo it, which can be very alarming and uncomfortable.

    Ready to get infusing?

    In closing, take it easy when it comes to edibles, especially if it this is all new to you. The last thing I want is for people to feel sick or have a bad experience. But if you do it right, oils and edibles can be powerful and wonderful healing tools to have at your disposal.

    Finally, please remember that kiddos are especially curious about edible goodies, so keep your stash hidden securely away!

    If you enjoy this article, be sure to check out:

    Please feel free to ask questions, or spread the love by sharing or pinning this post! Thank you for tuning in, and enjoy the ride.

    Come learn how to easily make your own cannabis-infused oil, ready to use in medicated edible recipes, topical salves, or even enjoy straight on its own.

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    cbd oil before surgery

    CBD Surgery Facts You Should Not Ignore

    Loving your cannabidiol (CBD) especially for its anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties? Great. Can you safely take it before surgery to help you through the ordeal? Well, as usual, the answer is not straightforward, and those in the know don’t seem to agree 100 percent, either. But that’s not a problem.

    With CBD, hospital stays can definitely be more positive, but you need to see the whole picture before making a choice. Surgery involves a lot more than meets the eye, obviously. So, you and your doctor will need to work together closely if you want to include CBD in your arsenal against anxiety, pain, and inflammation.

    CBD Surgery—always Do This First

    Let’s lead with one important piece of advice, though: always disclose your CBD and/or cannabis use (including weed) to the surgeon and anesthesiologist or any medical staff responsible for your hospital intake. Also, ask the presiding surgical doctor if you should be ingesting any cannabinoid at all, and take that advice seriously. Read on for the basic guidelines, but sticking to what the doctor says will be the best course of action.

    CBD Surgery—contraindications

    Are there any guidelines as to who should really avoid taking CBD before surgery, though? Yup, and they’re pretty simple—if you are on any anticoagulant, you should completely avoid taking CBD or any cannabis-related product long before getting operated on.

    Here’s why, according to Dr. Alaa Abd-Elsayed, writing for ASRA News. Abd-Elsayed is a pain physician and anesthesiologist:

    Blood coagulation studies indicate that . CBD showed mild anticoagulating effects. Furthermore, the authors demonstrated that 50% clotting times in obese and lean rats treated with cannabis extracts were 1.5- to 2.0-fold greater than their controls (rats not treated with cannabis extracts). The authors also suggested that cannabis may be used in the setting of hypercoagulable states as may exist in patients with diabetes type 2.5. In other studies, CBD oil was found to affect platelets and anticoagulants by suppressing their production and thereby potentially increasing bleeding tendencies.” [1]

    In simpler terms—research shows that CBD is a mild blood thinner. It could potentially exacerbate bleeding after surgery and slow down wound healing, especially if you suffer from any clotting disorder.

    Cannabidiol furthermore gets metabolized via the same liver pathways as most prescription anti-coagulants. This effect is dose dependent, but it can affect the potency of the drug. (Research has shown that CBD increases serum warfarin, which could prove fatal.) [2]

    Therefore, if you’re taking prescription blood thinners, always consult with your doctor before starting on any CBD regimen. They should insist on regular blood checks, as CBD and cannabis can decrease the degradation of especially warfarin in your body, and doses should be adjusted accordingly. If not, it could cause serious complications that would put your health—even your life—at risk.

    If you are taking CBD together with any chronic medicine (especially those with a risk of drug-drug interaction), the rule of thumb should be to consult with your doctor for guidance days before uptake for surgery or any other hospital procedure.

    CBD Surgery—anesthesia

    Anesthesia is no joke. Your body literally gets paralyzed by powerful drugs (ergo the need for ventilators, because you cannot breathe by yourself while “under!”) before the surgeon takes to it with their blade. You don’t want to mess with this procedure.

    For this reason, patients are always advised to disclose any chronic supplements and medication they take well before surgery, including cannabis and related products.

    From a patient education pamphlet distributed by the Royal Victoria Regional Health Care Centre, Ontario:

    Anesthetic risk has many variables and is often related to your unique medical issues and specific surgery. Individuals who use cannabis do so in many ways, forms and amounts. Therefore, its effect on the body is difficult to predict when combined with a wide variety of anesthetic agents and techniques.

    Currently, we do not have enough evidence to say that cannabis alone will increase your anesthetic risk when stopped at an appropriate time.” [3]

    CBD Surgery—when Should You Stop Taking CBD?

    If you’re not taking chronic medication, it gets somewhat easier.

    At the Royal Victoria, patients are advised to stick to the following times for stopping any cannabis product:

    Another doctor responder for the HelloMD forum sends this notice to her patients:

    If you ever do end up with surgery, you must discontinue your CBDs and your vitamin D3 approximately 48 hours before surgery. Both CBD and vitamin D thin the blood so typically surgeons would like to have you off anything that thins your blood for 48 hours before surgery. You may start in both medications again after surgery, typically when you’re released from the hospital.” [4]

    Yet another doctor, the Chief Medical Officer of HelloMD, says this on the same forum:

    There should be no issue with you taking CBD the day before surgery, unless you are on blood thinners. CBD could perhaps prolong your bleeding time. As an anti-inflammatory it may even help with your wound healing. Depending on the time of your surgery, I would make sure that if you are taking a capsule that you observe the instructions by whoever calls you from the hospital regarding what time to stop eating and drinking fluids. You should not take the CBD after that time either. For post operative pain, you might want to consider using a 1:1 CBD:THC ratio tincture instead of an opioid, if one is prescribed by your surgeon. I would also let them know that you are taking it as well.” [4]

    Get the idea? Cannabis, CBD, hospitals, and surgery are not simple and easy companions—and research is lacking, so there are no formal guidelines. Therefore, the safest route would always be to consult with your physician and disclose what you ingested well before surgery.

    With CBD, hospital stays can surely be more positive, but is it safe to take CBD before surgery to help you through the ordeal? Get the whole picture here.

    CBD Oil Before / After Surgery Safe?

    While some states are slowly adopting more lenient laws regarding the recreational use of marijuana, it is a byproduct of this plant that seems to be taking the country by storm. Whether it is tinctures to manage physical pain and anxiety, or topical creams and smokeable “joints,” CBD appears to be the latest “cure-all” craze—and users are flocking to pharmacies and pop-up dispensaries in droves.

    CBD is considered to be generally safe by many, but the popularity of the product has far surpassed current regulation. Unregulated, synthetic products should be avoided entirely and even regulated CBD should not be taken immediately before or after surgery.

    As a physician, I must weigh the popularity vs. the published research for medical and health-related products. While CBD oil does appear to have potential as an effective treatment for some people, it’s important to know the possible risks before using or consuming CBD.

    I have recently had some patients ask about using CBD oil before and after elective surgery, and I want to clear a few things up to ensure that patients have a safe surgery and recovery.

    What is CBD?

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main extracts of the marijuana plant, second only to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana). While it has experienced a boom in popularity over the last few years, this derivative from the hemp plant has a long history, with documentation of therapeutic use dating back to 2737 BC.

    There are a number of studies that suggest that CBD can be a powerful alternative for managing epilepsy, insomnia, and mental health disorders, however, the popularity of the product has far surpassed current research on its effectiveness.

    Is CBD legal in Texas?

    Earlier this summer, Governor Greg Abbott signed a bill making the production of hemp and hemp-derived CBD legal in Texas. While producing and purchasing CBD products is now technically legal, many available products are still unregulated and could contain more or less CBD than advertised, have undisclosed ingredients, or could be concocted with synthetic cannabinoids. Commonly found in gas stations and convenience stores, synthetic cannabinoids are completely unregulated and pose significant risks.

    CBD may now be legal, but that doesn’t mean it’s safe: the FDA has issued a warning about synthetic, contaminated CBD products.

    Just because a product is legal does not mean it is guaranteed to be safe. The FDA released a warning last year about the health risks of synthetic cannabinoid products, which were found to be contaminated with the rat poison brodifacoum. After ingesting these products, many people experienced vomiting, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and even violent behavior and suicidal thoughts. Synthetic cannabinoids have now been linked to severe, uncontrolled bleeding and death. Hundreds of people across several states have been affected negatively by CBD products.

    Should I stop taking CBD before cosmetic surgery?

    CBD is used widely in the self-management of pain and anxiety, so many patients wonder if they can ingest CBD oil drops or tinctures before their cosmetic procedure and during their recovery. CBD products should not be taken in the days before or after surgery.

    We have an incomplete understanding of how CBD interacts with other medications and how it may impact our body systems, but research has found that it has an anticoagulant effect, which puts patients at risk for increased bleeding during and after surgery. Abundant or easy bleeding after surgery can result in the need to return for another, unanticipated surgery to correct the bleeding problems, asymmetry, and tissue death after surgery.

    Just as I ask patients to stop taking herbal supplements, vitamins, and nicotine (and even seemingly harmless beverages like green tea) to ensure there are no problems with anesthesia or increased bleeding, CBD products should be stopped two weeks prior to surgery.

    CBD products also have a potent reaction with an enzyme system in the liver that can prevent other medications—such as anesthesia medications or prescription pain killers—from using the same system, leading to a build-up in your system and preventing the medications from doing their job.

    The unregulated nature of CBD means that dosing has not been defined and that different brands offer a wide variety of strengths available for purchase. The current state of the CBD industry is like the wild west of supplements, and without truly scientific data, we must err on the side of caution.

    Can I smoke weed before surgery?

    I encourage patients not to smoke anything before a procedure. Many patients falsely believe that smoking marijuana is a safer choice than cigarettes, which is not true—particularly when it comes to surgery. Smoke of any kind in the lungs can lead to respiratory distress, and marijuana itself can interfere with anesthesia, leading to a higher risk of pneumonia after surgery and a higher risk of airway emergencies. Much like nicotine, smoking marijuana before or after surgery delays the healing process and causes poor scarring of your surgical sites. If you live somewhere where marijuana is legal, edibles are a better choice for eliminating the respiratory problems, however, be sure not to eat past the allowed time before surgery.

    It’s crucial to be transparent with your physician; we’re not here to judge, but rather to keep you safe

    Before any procedure, it’s important that you share any medications, herbal supplements, or vitamins you take regularly with your surgeon, in addition to information about lifestyle habits like drinking, smoking, and drug use.

    As a board certified plastic surgeon, my job is not to pass judgment on your personal decisions or lecture you. However, once you are in my operating room, my ability to perform your procedure safely is very much affected by what you put in your body and whether or not you share that information with me. Something as seemingly innocent as CBD oil drops can lead to surgical complications that can, in turn, impact your wellbeing and your results.

    If you are ever unsure about what you can or cannot take prior to surgery, please contact your surgeon for their specific pre-op and post-op instructions.

    Wondering if CBD is safe to use before & after surgery? Board certified plastic surgeon Dr. Emily Kirby explains why you may need to rethink this popular product.

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    LATEST IN THE LAW

    A Quick Guide to the CBD Laws in California

    The CBD laws in California have recently been updated with some major changes. Although California was one of the first states that legalized the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes, the laws on CBD usage have always been quite unclear in the state. However, as the United States federal legislation has clarified their stance on CBD usage it has made it simpler for California residents to get CBD products that they need. Below is a quick guide to the CBD laws in California that can help you to understand how it may affect you as a consumer or as a business.

    California’s CBD Laws

    As per the California state laws, CBD was defined as a marijuana product until 2018. This made the use of CBD products legal only if they were sourced from state-sanctioned medical marijuana dispensaries. Although CBD laws were not strictly enforced, California residents had their reasons to be doubtful about the legality of cannabidiol in the state.

    In November 2016, recreational marijuana was made legal statewide with Proposition 64. The law was put into effect only on January 2018 when the Medicinal and Adult-Use Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (MAUCRSA) came to be. This made hemp-based and marijuana-based products legal throughout California for residents as well as visitors who are above 21 years of age.

    Proposition 64, however, did not change the definition of CBD, and it is still considered a marijuana product in the state. But, this technicality should not be a cause for concern for those who are above 21 years of age or are a medical marijuana patient. However, California legislators are still not clear about whether CBD use is still considered legal if it is sold outside of a state-sanctioned recreational or medical marijuana dispensary. This laxity can be a cause of concern for businesses looking to enter the CBD industry. There are still debates going on to decide how CBD should be regulated in the state and it may take years to properly resolve the confusion.

    It is interesting to see that despite all the bureaucratic complexities the growth of the California CBD market is still on the rise. However, businesses that want to manufacture and market CBD products in California are growing more and more impatient with the vague CBD laws in the state. At present, only state-sanctioned California companies are allowed to make and distribute THC marijuana extracts legally. However, these producers are not allowed to manufacture CBD products as per the state laws, as cannabidiol is derived from hemp and has virtually no THC content. Therefore, California residents who want to use a CBD product must buy it online or from another state.

    Note that the recent changes to federal CBD law give state legislators the right to determine their own CBD policy. Many US states have used this right to set up comprehensive CBD laws, which will make sure that their residents can have safe access to all the CBD products they want. For instance, even Kansas has legalized CBD usage despite the fact that they consider marijuana use in the state fully illegal. The only condition in Kansas is that residents can only sell or possess CBD products that have less than 0.3% THC content. This is never a concern for CBD product manufacturers or users, as industrial hemp naturally contains less than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol or THC.

    Other than Kansas, Texas, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, and Iowa have also made CBD use legal in the state. It is shocking to see that in California, where the use of THC and marijuana products is considered legal, there are no clear laws to govern the sale or possession of CBD. It seems like California is breeding needless confusion for residents who just want to use CBD products for its profound benefits. Not to mention how it is affecting local businesses that are looking to enter the hemp industry.

    The good news is that CBD usage cannot be deemed illegal in California because the use or recreational and medical marijuana is legal in the state. The worrying thing is that there are no state-approved shops, which sell CBD products. Besides, buying CBD products from general market retailers in the state can be relatively confusing as well. The only way to buy and use cannabidiol products safely at this point in California seems to be purchasing the desired product online.

    The recent changes to the legal status of CBD in the eyes of federal laws and the updated state laws look promising but it may take some time to clear the viewpoint of California legislators on CBD. Therefore, if you were looking to start a CBD business in California it may be wiser to consult a cannabis lawyer who is well versed with the applicable laws of the state so that he/she can guide you properly on how to proceed.

    Contact the lawyers at Davidovich Stein Law Group today for a free consultation.

    The CBD laws in California have recently been updated with some major changes. The laws on CBD usage have always been quite unclear in the state.

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    All You Need to Know About CBD in New Jersey

    CBD, or cannabidiol, is one of more than one hundred cannabinoids contained in cannabis. CBD differs from the other main and well-known cannabinoid found in marijuana, namely THC, in that it does not contain any psychoactive component. This simply means that CBD will not make you high or stoned if you use it.

    For this reason, CBD has become widely available across the United States. However, there is still a lot of confusion regarding its legality. Today we look at CBD in New Jersey, including the relevant laws and why you might use it.

    CBD Benefits

    CBD has many purported health benefits and many have touted it as a treatment for a wide variety of health conditions. They include epilepsy, arthritis, depression, and diabetes, to name just a few.

    Studies have shown that CBD has anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, as well as antipsychotic properties. However, the number of human clinical trials studying the effects of CBD has been fairly limited so far.

    What has been proven, however, is that CBD is very effective at treating two rare forms of life-threatening childhood epilepsy conditions , namely Dravet Syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome.

    In 2013, a CNN documentary called “Weed” told the story of a little girl from Colorado named Charlotte, who had Dravet Syndrome. At just five years old, Charlotte was suffering up to 300 grand mal seizures per week due to her rare form of epilepsy.

    Somewhat controversially, Charlotte took CBD oil derived from a high CBD-cannabis strain. The results were amazing. Charlotte’s seizures almost completely stopped. The effectiveness of CBD oil as a treatment for Charlotte’s Dravet Syndrome led to hundreds of other families flocking to Colorado to obtain CBD oil to treat their children’s epilepsy.

    In June of 2018, The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the marijuana-based medication Epidiolex, manufactured by the UK-based company GW Pharmaceuticals. Epidiolex contains a high CBD content but importantly no THC, which is the psychoactive compound contained in cannabis.

    Research data published in the New England Journal of Medicine undoubtedly played a part in the approval of Epidiolex by the FDA. This particular study found that Epidiolex successfully reduced epileptic seizures by more than 40%. Doctors use Epidiolex to treat both rare forms of childhood epilepsy – Dravet Syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome.

    Is CBD Oil Legal in New Jersey?

    As marijuana remains classified as a Schedule 1 drug at the federal level, the legality of using CBD oil from marijuana is an important concern for New Jerseyans. Currently, any person who has registered in New Jersey’s Medical Marijuana Program is legally protected against arrest, prosecution or any penalties for possession of marijuana under New Jersey’s Compassionate Use Medical Marijuana Act. Former New Jersey Governor Joe Corzine signed the Act into law on his final day in office on January 18, 2010.

    Any person with a qualifying medical condition (see the list below), a written recommendation from a doctor, and who holds an MMJ card can apply for a place on the Medical Marijuana Program in New Jersey. For more information, check out our article on how to obtain an MMJ card in New Jersey.

    New Jersey MMJ Qualifying Conditions

    List of qualifying conditions for the Medical Marijuana Program in New Jersey:

    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
    • Multiple sclerosis
    • Cancer
    • Muscular dystrophy
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Crohn’s disease
    • Any terminal illness with a prognosis of under 12 months
    • HIV or AIDS
    • Seizure disorders (including epilepsy)
    • Intractable skeletal muscular spasticity
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    • Glaucoma
    • Severe or chronic pain
    • Anxiety
    • Migraines
    • Tourette’s syndrome
    • Dysmenorrhea
    • Opioid Use Disorder

    If you are not registered in the Medical Marijuana Program in New Jersey, it is only legal to use CBD oil derived from hemp . The use of hemp-based products is entirely legal under federal law, under the Farm Bill.

    In New Jersey, (and other states in America) it is only legal to use CBD oil which comes from hemp (not from marijuana). This is because CBD oil derived from hemp contains less than 0.3% THC, the psychoactive component of the cannabis plant.

    However, if you are a New Jerseyan registered in the Medical Marijuana Program, things are different. If you hold an MMJ card, as well as a written recommendation from a doctor, you can legally use CBD oil from marijuana as well as from hemp, for medical reasons.

    What Type of CBD Products are Available in New Jersey?

    The most commonly used CBD product is CBD oil , but there are a variety of different CBD products out there, including ointments, concentrates, pills, tinctures, wax, lotions, and even CBD drinks.

    Not All CBD Hemp Oil Is Top Quality…

    It is important to realize that not all CBD hemp oil is of the same quality. Some health food stores and vape shops stock low-quality hemp oil products sourced from hemp seeds. These hemp seed-based products may have some nutritional benefits , but they do not have any medicinal or therapeutic value.

    The reason is that hemp seeds do not contain any CBD oil. CBD oil can only be extracted from hemp via the flowers, leaves, stem, and stalk of a mature hemp plant. It is highly recommended that rather than purchasing low-quality hemp seed products that you source a reputable CBD oil seller instead, either in New Jersey or online.

    Where Can I Get CBD Oil in New Jersey?

    There are six Alternative Treatment Centers (ATC) in New Jersey. These are licensed dispensaries regulated by the New Jersey Department of Health where medicinal cannabis products are available. To avail of these products, you must be a holder of an MMJ card and have a written recommendation from a doctor.

    CBD hemp-based products are available throughout the state of New Jersey, in health food stores and vape shops. There are also a considerable number of products available online too.

    Final Thoughts on CBD in New Jersey

    If you are a New Jerseyan who has a qualifying medical condition from the list above and you want to use CBD products to treat your health condition, then you should discuss this with your medical practitioner first.

    To purchase CBD-based products from any of the six Alternative Treatment Centers in New Jersey, you will need your doctor to write a recommendation letter or note for you and you will need to have an MMJ card. You may also want to discuss registering for New Jersey’s Medical Marijuana program with your doctor so that you can legally use marijuana as well as CBD oil in New Jersey.

    We explain everything you need to know about CBD in New Jersey, a state where the law is not as simple as you might think.

    Is CBD oil legal in New Jersey?

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    Contents

    1. What is CBD?
    2. Why is CBD sometimes illegal?
    3. New Jersey CBD laws
    4. Where to buy CBD in New Jersey
    5. How to read CBD labels and packaging

    Yes. Hemp-derived CBD products are legal in New Jersey. In addition, CBD derived from marijuana plants is legal for qualifying patients authorized to participate in the state’s medical marijuana plan.

    For those who are not registered in the medical marijuana program, there’s hemp-derived CBD, which was made legal in New Jersey in August 2019 with the New Jersey Hemp Farming Act, following the 2018 Farm Bill, which legalized industrial hemp at a federal level.

    New Jersey completely decriminalized hemp and requires a license to grow or process this agricultural commodity. The New Jersey Department of Agriculture is in charge of licensing and regulations, and the New Jersey Hemp Program was among the first three states to be approved by the US Department of Agriculture.

    What is CBD?

    CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. After tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) is the second-most abundant cannabinoid in the plant, and has many potential therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-anxiety and seizure-suppressant properties. CBD can be sourced from both marijuana plants and hemp plants, which are legal in most countries as they contain minuscule amounts of THC.

    CBD stands for cannabidiol, a non-intoxicating substance found in cannabis. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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    Combine THC and CBD to fully employ the entourage effect; THC and CBD work hand-in-hand to amplify each others’ effects.

    Why is CBD sometimes illegal?

    The 1970 Federal Controlled Substances Act categorized all types of cannabis, including hemp, as Schedule I, which is defined as a substance with a high potential for abuse, no accepted medical use, and a likelihood for addiction. The act prevented further research that may have shed light on beneficial uses for cannabis.

    Things changed with the passage of the 2014 Farm Bill, which recognized the difference between hemp, which must contain less than .3% THC by weight. Marijuana, on the other hand, is defined as containing more than .3% THC and is still categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance. The Hemp Farming Act of 2018 was signed by President Donald Trump on Dec. 20, 2018, and removed hemp from the list of Controlled Substances, making it legal at a federal level. CBD derived from marijuana plants remains illegal on the federal level, while CBD derived from hemp is legal but governed by rules that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has yet to draft.Following the passage of the Farm Bill, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was given the authority to regulate CBD labeling, therapeutic claims, and its use as a food additive. The FDA has taken the stance that hemp-derived CBD may not be added to food and beverages, nor marketed as dietary supplements. The FDA has been strict when it comes to health claims and content that could be construed as medical advice about CBD.

    While the 2018 Farm Bill did legalize hemp, its production, and the sale of any product derived from it, including CBD, it’s still highly regulated. The bill allows some states to make their own rules for CBD cultivation and sale. States may regulate CBD in food, beverages, dietary supplements, and other products while waiting for final FDA rules.

    New Jersey CBD laws

    In August 2019, New Jersey lawmakers passed New Jersey Assembly Bill 5322, which set up licensing requirements for growing and processing industrial hemp. While many states moved to legalize hemp production after the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill at the end of the year, New Jersey was one of a few states that started doing so after the 2014 Farm Bill recognized the difference between industrial hemp, from which CBD is derived, and marijuana.

    The state passed NJ A1330 in November 2018, adopting the same standard as the federal government, requiring industrial hemp to contain .3% or less THC by weight and setting up a pilot program that was eventually replaced by the subsequent passage of NJ A5322.

    To meet federal legal criteria, CBD oil must contain no more than 0.3 percent THC. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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    The new statute completely legalized all forms of hemp and products derived from it, as long as the crop was grown in a legal manner with less than .3% THC. Growers and processors must be licensed, and anyone who grows hemp without authorization will be subject to the same penalties as those who get caught growing marijuana. Three violations in five years would result in a five-year ban from growing hemp.

    Intentional attempts to skirt the law would be referred to state and federal law enforcement agencies. Hemp products, including CBD, may be transported out and into the state, provided the out-of-state CBD was produced from industrial hemp and not marijuana plants. New Jersey has submitted its plan to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and it awaits approval. NJ A5322 specifically states that individuals may still grow hemp in the state if USDA doesn’t approve the state’s plan as long as the grower complies with federal statutes.

    Hemp-derived CBD is legal in New Jersey in all forms, including cosmetics, personal products, and food. NJ A5322 allows the state’s health department to set rules around CBD. All hemp is required to undergo testing for THC levels, and any hemp that tests higher than .3% THC must be reported to the producer and the USDA, and may be required to be retested.

    New Jersey CBD possession limits

    There are no possession limits in New Jersey when it comes to hemp-derived CBD. For medical patients using marijuana-derived CBD, the possession limit for medical marijuana in New Jersey is 2 ounces, or 56.7 grams, of marijuana product in a 30-day period.

    There are no possession limits in New Jersey when it comes to hemp-derived CBD, but there is for medical patients using marijuana-derived CBD. Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps

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    Where to buy CBD in New Jersey

    Smaller, local retailers and health food stores in New Jersey may offer CBD products. Shopping online is another option since the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) has confirmed that legal CBD products may be shipped by mail. CBD products can usually be found online at the websites of specific brands, while a list a reputable CBD brands can be found on Weedmaps.

    How to read CBD labels and packaging

    The FDA currently does not allow CBD-infused food, drinks, or dietary supplements to be sold, and hasn’t reached a final conclusion on regulating hemp-derived CBD products. While the FDA slowly and cautiously approaches making new regulations for CBD products, the gap between regulated products and anything goes grows wider, leaving consumers at risk of buying poor-quality products. When buying CBD products look for these on the label:

    • Amount of active CBD per serving
    • Supplement Fact panel, including other ingredients
    • Net weight
    • Manufacturer or distributor name
    • Suggested Use
    • Full spectrum, broad spectrum, or isolate
    • Batch or date code

    Is CBD oil legal in New Jersey? Copy article link to clipboard. Link copied to clipboard. Contents What is CBD? Why is CBD sometimes illegal? New Jersey CBD laws